||CIA Special National Intelligence Estimate
released on June 5, 2009. Israelís nukes and role in
foreign policy "assertiveness."
"Possession of a nuclear weapon capability, or even the prospect
of achieving it, would clearly give Israel a greater sense of
security, self-confidence, and assertiveness...Israel would be
less inclined than ever to make concessions..."
||President John F. Kennedy insists on US
inspections of Israel's Dimona nuclear reactor in a secret
letter to Prime Minister Levi Eskol.
||Treaty on the Non proliferation of Nuclear
Weapons enters into force.
||The US passes the Symington Amendment of
1976. Symington Amendment prohibits most U.S. foreign aid to any
country found trafficking in nuclear enrichment equipment or
technology outside international safeguards. Israel never
signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) or subjected
its nuclear weapons facilities to IAEA inspections.
linked Committee on International Relations report on the Arms
Export Control Act of 1976 references (PDF page 92, document
page 52) hearings chaired by Symington in 1975 and 1976:
"The concepts of a multilateral approach to reprocessing and
enrichment and of full safeguards was widely supported in
hearings held last year and this year by the Subcommittee on
Arms Control, International Organizations and Security
Agreements, chaired by Senator Symington. The Committee believes
that the goals of this section are consistent with the policy
objectives of the executive branch. If properly implemented this
section would reinforce Executive Branch efforts to impress
upon other governments the United States' desire to control the
dangerous spread of nuclear enrichment and reprocessing
material. The Committee believes that the consequences of
proliferation are so serious that the United States should be
willing to impose penalties upon nations proceeding on a
possible course to nuclear weapons without taking the reassuring
steps this section is designed to promote.
Symington, the sponsor of this amendment, noted, "In
effect, this amendment says to other nations, if you wish to
take the dangerous and costly steps necessary to achieve a
nuclear weapons option, you cannot expect the United States to
help underwrite that effort indirectly or directly."
||Glenn Amendment of 1977 calls for an end to
aid to countries that import reprocessing technology.
||The General Accounting Office investigates
Israeli diversion of weapons grade uranium from the United
States and produces the report "Nuclear Diversion in the U.S.?
13 Years of Contradiction and Confusion." It remains
classified until May 6, 2010.
||The Sunday Times publishes "The secrets of
Israel's nuclear arsenal/ Atomic technician Mordechai Vanunu
reveals secret weapons production."
||The Department of Defense charters a
study to determine which countries might have technology to
contribute to its "Strategic Defense Initiative" or "Star Wars"
missile defense program. Although the report documents Israel's
extensive nuclear weapons program, US aid continues to flow and
no waivers are issued by the President.
||Former president Jimmy
Carter names Israel as a nuclear weapons power.
||The US Army names Israel
as a nuclear weapons power.
||AIPAC and ZOA lobby for
$2.775 billion in US military aid for Israel
||Congress advised (via fax)
that US aid is governed by the Symington Amendment.
||President Barak Obama
advised (via letter) that US aid is governed by the Symington